Vim Color Schemes

April 21, 2009

The Vim text editor supports highly-configurable color schemes which build upon the editor’s rich syntax highlighting system. The stock Vim distribution includes a number of color schemes, and many more are available from the Vim Scripts repository.

Color scheme definitions are simply normal Vim scripts that live in the colors/ directory of the Vim runtime hierarchy (see :help runtimepath).

Color schemes are loaded using the :colorscheme command. The scheme’s name is determined by the filename of its script file (minus the .vim extension). For example, to load the stock blue color scheme (which is defined by the colors/blue.vim script):

:colorscheme blue

Creating Color Schemes

Creating a custom color scheme is quite easy. Start by creating a new Vim script file in the colors/ directory based on the name of the new scheme. Start the script with the following commands:

set background=dark
"or background=light
highlight clear
if exists("syntax_on")
    syntax reset
let g:colors_name = "example"

These commands will reset the syntax highlighting system to its default state. Note that some color scheme scripts might prefer a light background, so that first line should be changed accordingly. (highlight clear uses the background value, so background must be set first.)

The final line sets the global colors_name variable to the scheme’s name (example, in this example).

The rest of the script defines the color scheme itself. This is accomplished primarily through the highlight (or hi) command. Each highlight command sets the colors for a single syntax group. Setting the colors for the Comments group might look like this:

hi Comment ctermbg=black ctermfg=darkgrey guibg=#000000 guifg=#777777

To see the full list of Vim’s syntax groups (along with their current highlight settings), run the following command from within the editor:

:source $VIMRUNTIME/syntax/hitest.vim

Testing Runtime Features

Because the color scheme is simply a Vim script, you can conditionalize the definitions based on various runtime values. The presence of the gui_running feature indicates that the Vim GUI is running, for example:

if has('gui_running')
    " GUI colors
    " Non-GUI (terminal) colors

And the terminal’s color range – the number of available colors – can be queried via the &t_Co variable:

if &t_Co > 255
    " More than 256 colors are available

Additional Configuration

Color scheme scripts can support basic configuration using global variables.

if exists("g:example_force_dark")
    set background=dark

The user should set this variable in his .vimrc file before loading the color scheme script.

let g:example_force_dark = 1
colorscheme example

(Global variables can be “unset” using the unlet command.)